Monday, July 20, 2020

Definition of Distress Tolerance in PTSD

Definition of Distress Tolerance in PTSD PTSD Coping Print Distress Tolerance in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Distress Tolerance to Manage Intense Emotions By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 07, 2018 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes & Risk Factors Treatment Living With In Children Alberto Guglielmi/Getty Images Distress tolerance is your actual or perceived ability to stand up to emotional distress. Distress tolerance is also surviving an emotional incident without making it worse. Do you have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? If so, chances are that many things in life cause you emotional distress thats hard to manage. Fortunately, learning distress tolerance techniques can make a very positive difference in your ability to handle distressing emotions. Whats the Impact of Out-of-Control Intense Emotions on People With PTSD? People with PTSD often feel very intense negative emotions such as shame, fear, anger, anxiety, guilt, and sadness. These can be frightening, and the stronger your emotions are, the harder it can be to control them. You may even find it hard to identify the specific emotions youre experiencing--which can make them feel even more frightening, unpredictable, and out of your control. People with PTSD sometimes choose unhealthy behaviors, such as deliberate self-harm, binge eating, substance abuse, or other impulsive behaviors, as ways of coping with intensely distressing emotions. Unfortunately, the relief these measures provide is short-lived, and to make matters worse, the distressing emotions often return even stronger and more upsetting. The good news is that learning distress tolerance techniques can help you: Prepare in advance to cope with intense emotionsEnjoy a more positive long-term outlook for coping with them What Distress Tolerance Techniques Are Available? If you have PTSD, you can select from a number of treatments that include teaching distress-tolerance skills. For example, a treatment called dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) can provide you with skills that are directly focused on increasing distress tolerance. Another treatment, called interoceptive exposure, can help increase your ability to tolerate the effects of intense negative emotions on your body, such as increased heart rate and muscle tension. Distraction can be a very effective way of taking action to increase your distress tolerance. Many practical and effective behaviors for distracting you from intense emotions are emphasized in DBT. They include: Getting Active. Do something you enjoy, such as taking a walk in beautiful surroundings. Or do something youd be doing now? if you werent feeling so upset.Contributing. Go outside of yourself by focusing your attention on helping others (for example, volunteering at a school or nursing home).Comparing. Think of a time when you were even more emotionally distressed than you are now. Give yourself praise and credit for getting through that crisis--and for doing all you can to get through this one.Triggering Opposite Emotions. Ask yourself: Whats the opposite feeling to the distress Im feeling now? Then do something to make you feel that opposite way! For example, if youre feeling very angry, watch a comedy show or movie that always makes you laugh.Thinking Big. The idea is to fill your brain with other thoughts so theres no room for the distressing ones. You need a lot of detail for this one, so imagine something like decorating a beautiful new home room by room or, if youre in a crowd , guessing each persons profession.Self-Soothing. You may already be familiar with this calming technique, in which you use sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste to treat yourself to comforting, pleasurable experiences. But this time, think of how youd comfort a loved one whos in the situation youre in now--and then comfort yourself in the same caring way.Putting Your Body in Charge. Some mental health professionals consider this the best way to get unstuck from the grip of intensely distressing emotions. Its based on the idea that where your body leads, your emotions will follow. So get going! Run up and down stairs. If youre inside, go outside. If youre outside, go inside. Your body and your emotions will thank you. As you can see, learning distress tolerance skills can not only help you get through emotional crises but can also bring more enjoyment into your life. Although the distress tolerance treatments described here were not originally designed to treat PTSD, their use now for this purpose often brings very positive results.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Alcohol and the Workplace - 3095 Words

Alcohol and the Workplace Bobby Herron SOC402 Contemporary Social Problems amp; the Workplace Kathryn Looney February 6, 2011 Alcohol and the Workplace People have a long love affair with alcohol. However, with all love affairs, sometimes thing take a wrong turn. Many people are dependent on alcohol, which can in turn lead to problems in their life. When a person’s alcohol use affects the workplace it becomes a major problem. Besides the health issues to the individual, alcohol use, and abuse, negatively affects workplace safety and productivity, plus it increases medical costs. Oddly enough though, the social aspects of the workplace often can and do contribute to the use and abuse of alcohol. Further, unhappiness with work and†¦show more content†¦2). Many people do not truly get to know their co-workers while at work but having drinks with them after work is where they truly begin to bond and build team loyalty. If you do not care to socialize by drinking after work, or at the very least join with the group, then you can feel left out. Sometimes even the boss joins in, either during or after work. Zakian also reported the story of an interviewed survey participant whose first day on the job resulted in her going to lunch with her new boss and him drinking four pints of alcohol (Zakian, 2003, p. 2). Between the after work socialization and lunchtime alcohol consumption you may feel compelled to become a drinker if you are currently not. Further, if you are a drinker this could lead to alcohol abuse and interfere with your performance in the workplace, thus leading to less productivity. Not socializing in these situations could leave you ostracized by your boss and co-workers causing you to miss out on opportunities. Work itself can cause a person to drink heavily, which in turn can affect the workplace as discussed above. Lauer amp; Lauer reported â€Å"feelings of alienation or high levels of job dissatisfaction may lead to heavy drinking in an effort to cope† (2011, p. 301). It is ironic that both socializi ng and alienating yourself from your co-workers can cause someone to drink heavily.Show MoreRelatedDrug And Alcohol Testing On The Workplace1663 Words   |  7 PagesDrug and Alcohol Testing in the Workplace Due: Monday Dec 1, 2014 COMM-220-F Rebecca Walsh By Brett Tate and Brandon Bracko November 17, 14 Introduction People often question drug and alcohol testing in the work place. It is a controversial subject that has a range of mixed emotions. But where do you draw the line when it comes to crossing the boundaries of prying into one’s personal life? This report will explain the legal, and ethical issues surrounding the topic of drug and alcohol testing inRead MoreEssay about Drugs and Alcohol in the Workplace1790 Words   |  8 PagesUse of Drugs and Alcohol in the Workplace {draw:frame} {draw:frame} Figure 2 79% of binge drinkers are members of the workforce (Drug-Free Workplace) {draw:frame} {draw:frame} Drug and/or Alcohol Use Seriously Threatens Organizations {draw:frame} Excessive absenteeism, which holds a significantly percentage of occurrences of drug users as cited above, costs an organization lower productivity, damaged moral and consequently lower product quality. The US Dept of Labor reportsRead MoreIntroduction Of Drugs And Alcohol Essay1392 Words   |  6 PagesDrugs and Alcohol 2 Overview 2 I. Workplace Factors 3 II. Workplace Performance Behavior 4 III. Workplace Role 5 RECOMMENDATION 6 Workplace Policies and Drug Testing 7 Policy and Regulations on Alcohol and drug abuse 7 Employee Education/Health Promotion 8 Works Cited 9 â€Æ' Employer’s Guide for a Drug-free Workplace Introduction to Drugs and Alcohol In order to understand drug and alcohol use, it is important to be clear about what we mean by the terms ‘drugs’ and ‘alcohol. Alcohol is a legalRead MoreCritical Analysis On Alcohol Misuse Essay1309 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis on Alcohol misuse in the workplace Summary The following is a case study of a male employee, drinking beers at work while working on a case study. His behavior addressed by his employer, as a result of his conduct. Even though he appears to be fully functional, his employer was not happy and is concerned about his employee’s wellbeing as well as his industry’s reputation. The employee sees alcohol used among employees during work as an expensive problem for the industry. Drinking alcohol whileRead MoreA Substance Abuse Free Workplace983 Words   |  4 PagesA SUBSTANCE ABUSE FREE WORKPLACE 1. Describe the effect of illegal or prescription drug and alcohol use in the workplace. How does this affect productivity? Today in the United States, 73% of drug users are employed, costing American businesses billions of dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. Studies reveal that employees who abuse drugs have a tremendously harmful effect on the workplace—they are more likely to have extended absences from work, show up lateRead MoreDrug Testing in the Workplace1281 Words   |  6 PagesDrug Testing in the Workplace Thesis statement: Administering a drug and alcohol policy can be challenging, but it can also be beneficial to the manufacturing company. I. Administering a drug and alcohol policy can be challenging. A. The company must comply with State and Federal laws when administering the drug and alcohol policy. B. The company must make sure the implementation of the test is done in a uniform manner. C. Some employees may bring law suits against the employerRead MoreWorking Under The Influence Case Study796 Words   |  4 Pages2001 Working Under the Influence Ashley Garcia Polk State College WORKING UNDER THE INFLUENCE Being under the influence can be a result of many different things, such as drinking alcohol or taking drugs. While doing such things can be fine when an employee is at home, these substances have no business in the workplace. Being under the influence at work can cause accidents, less production, tardiness or absenteeism, poor decision making, theft, and much more (â€Å"Drugs†, 2015). Employers can combatRead MoreEssay about The Duke Substance Program1051 Words   |  5 Pageshospital with some of the best graduate programs. Now, Dukes name has been moving up on prestigious lists. The university, hospitals and clinics across North Carolina, employs more than 30,000 faculty and staff. However, Duke uses The â€Å"Drug-Free Workplace Act† and the â€Å"Drug-Free Schools which, coincide with there Campus Regulation policy. Within the passed few years, Duke Substance program has achieve there goals by providing assistance to employees and students who are in jeopard y of losing employmentRead More Alcoholism Essay1075 Words   |  5 Pages Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a chronic disease, which is common in our world today. In the United States, 1 in every 13 adults is either an abuser of alcohol or an alcoholic. This disease includes a craving from the victim in spite of any problems or consequences, which they may have or have had. Consequences of this disease are often very severe; for example, job problems frequently arise. In addition to serious job dilemmas, victims of this disease often get into mischief with the lawRead MoreDrug-Free Workplace997 Words   |  4 PagesPresident Reagan signed the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 on November 18, 1988. The intent of the bill was to establish the foundation of a drug-free workplace in the areas that the federal government could affect outside the federal government; i.e., the workplaces of federal grantees and contractors. The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 does not mention drug testing at all. However, many companies have made drug testing a requirement. Th e Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 has 7 compliance requirements

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Pride in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun - 611 Words

Pride Numerous meanings thrive throughout Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun. One of the most prominent essential values shared is pride. The Younger family having little financial worth to their name holds pride as a means of dignity. Pride is depicted in almost every aspect of the novel, particularly represented through intricate self-respected morals, dreams, and struggle. Every character relays pride in their unique way. Mama and Walter are the most diverse to analyze in terms of layered pride. For Mama, pride means surpassing obstacles in relations of valuing family, growth, trust, faith, witnessing mistakes but forgiving and giving second chances. Mama believes morally nobody needs to take pity on her family. Her self- respect triumphs all temptation in act III, when the Younger family potentially has hit rock bottom, and is questioned whether to use a manipulative tactic for erasing a financial tragedy. The Younger’s would possibly eliminate the loss of their stolen savings, if they allow their heritage to be violated by a discriminating community. Mama’s nobility and pride at this specific moment is so powerful, she changes her son’s stubborn perspective on money and enlightens his heart to true family value. â€Å"Son – I come from five generations of people who was slaves and sharecroppers – but ain’t n obody in my family never let nobody pay ‘em no money that was a way of telling us we wasn’t fit to walk the earth. We ain’t never been that poor. We ain’tShow MoreRelatedA Raisin In The Sun Character Analysis902 Words   |  4 PagesSegregation vs. Southern Pride Lorraine Hansberry’s â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun† touches on many issues African Americans faced in the early to mid-twentieth century. One can analyze Hansberry’s â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun† from many angles, and come away with different meanings. While Michelle Gordon focuses more on segregation and housing discrimination that plagued African Americans on Chicago’s Southside in Hansberry’s â€Å"A Raisin in the Sun†, William Murray emphasizes on Southern Pride and heritage. This paperRead MoreLorraine Hansberrys A Raisin in the Sun1260 Words   |  6 Pagesoblivious to this fact, and to those who are aware and accept this knowledge. The people who are oblivious represent those who are ignorant of the fact that their dream will be deferred. This denial is the core of the concept used in A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry. The perception of the American Dream is one that is highly subjective, but every individual dream ends in it s own deferment. During the 1960s, the African-American people were in racial situations due to their â€Å"lowered status†Read MoreRacial Identity in A Raisin in the Sun: Who Am I?1102 Words   |  5 Pagesproviding a perverted rational for justifying segregation (Pilgrim â€Å"Mammy†; â€Å"Tom†). So when Lorraine Hansberry’s play, A Raisin in the Sun (1959), confronted the issue of segregation through the lens of an African American family living in Chicago’s Southside, the Caucasian audience’s widespread acceptance of a family who was â€Å"just like any other† (Nemiroff 9) appears ironic. Contrary to public perception, Raisin sought to convey â€Å"the essence of black people’s striving and the will to defeat segregationRead MoreThe Great Playwright s Life Story2415 Words   |  10 PagesBefore the relatively short life of Lorraine Hansberry tragically ended, the African-American playwright distinguished herself in American theatre and l iterature as she creatively and unknowingly challenged the views of African-American life, among other inescapable issues of the nation and the world, on the theatrical stage. The great playwright’s life story began on May 19, 1930. Although born during a time of hardship introduced by the Great Depression, Hansberry grew up rather comfortably inRead More Racism and the American Dream in Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun1340 Words   |  6 PagesA Raisin in the Sun is written by a famous African- American play write, Lorraine Hansberry, in 1959. It was a first play written by a black woman and directed by a black man, Lloyd Richards, on Broadway in New York. The story of A Raisin in the Sun is based on Lorraine Hansberry’s own early life experiences, from which she and her whole family had to suffer, in Chicago. Hansberry’s father, Carol Hansberry, also fought a legal battle against a racial restrictive covenant that attempted to stop African-Read MoreEss ay on Who Am I?: Racial Identity in A Raisin in the Sun1596 Words   |  7 Pagesa perverted rationale for justifying segregation (Pilgrim â€Å"Mammy†; â€Å"Tom†). So when Lorraine Hansberry’s play, A Raisin in the Sun (1959), confronted the issue of segregation through the lens of an African American family living in Chicago’s Southside, Caucasian audiences’ widespread acceptance of the Youngers, a family who was â€Å"just like any other,† appears ironic (Nemiroff 9). Contrary to public perception, Raisin sought to convey â€Å"the essence of black people’s striving and the will to defeat segregationRead MoreLorraine Hansberry1192 Words   |  5 PagesLorraine Hansberrys A Raisin in the Sun The characters in Lorraine Hansberrys play are very significant in understanding the play. The characters are examples of they way Lorraine lived day by day her live when she was a kid. The success of the play was brought out by the characters and her way of keeping our interest with each one of them. They characters are very critical in understanding the play. There were four main characters that made the play a sellout, Lena, Ruth, Beneatha and WalterRead MoreComparing Soul Food and A Raisin in the Sun Essay655 Words   |  3 PagesComparing Soul Food and A Raisin in the Sun Lorraine Hansberrys A Raisin in the Sun and George Tillmans box-office hit Soul Food explore the hardships and trials of black family life, and through the characters, setting, and theme of both the story and the film, the issue of class and the search for community is discussed. The theme indicated in these stories is the search for community. Mama Younger wanted her family to come closer. The more she tried, the farther apart they becameRead More Success of a Family: Aspirations Motives of the Younger Family in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun1553 Words   |  7 PagesLorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun revolves around a short but difficult period in the lives of the Younger family. Each family member has dreams of a higher quality of life; free from the pressures of poverty and the literal confines of an outgrown and decrepit apartment. Ultimately, the ambitions of each Younger are inspired by dreams of a better life for the family as a whole. Though each Younger approaches this goal differently, they each desire to rise above their current position in theRead More A Comparison of the Dream Deferred in A Raisin in the Sun and Harlem1407 Words   |  6 Pagesin A Raisin in the Sun and Harlem In Lorraine Hansberrys play A Raisin in the Sun, the author reveals a hard-working, honest African-American family struggling to make their dreams come true. Langston Hughes poem, Harlem, illustrates what could happen if those dreams never came to fruition. Together, both Hansberry and Hughes show the effects on human beings when a long-awaited dream is thwarted by economic and social hardships. Each of the characters in A Raisin in the Sun has

Ancient Civilization Of Mesopotamia Free Essays

According to some archaeologists, the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia had its first settlements dating back since 10,000 BCE. Due to this, it is considered as one of the birthplace of civilizations. Mesopotamia was also known as â€Å"the country between two rivers. We will write a custom essay sample on Ancient Civilization Of Mesopotamia or any similar topic only for you Order Now † (Chilvers, 2007) These two rivers that surrounded this fertile land were the Tigris and the Euphrates. I believe that both rivers were one of the significant environmental factors that contributed to the development of the ancient civilization known as Mesopotamia. (Hollar, 2011) The Tigris and Euphrates rivers start out in the mountains of Armenia. They are almost parallel to each other until they merge creating the Shatt al-Arab waterway which then empties to the Persian Gulf. The southern parts of these rivers are calmer, witnessed by the fertile soil that it produces. The Tigris is considerably shorter than the Euphrates, but was found to be more of importance commercially due to it being deeper. Bigger boats were able to travel here compared to the flat-bottomed ones that passed through the Euphrates. (Chilvers, 2007) The peoples of this region greatly depended and benefited from these rivers. It produced a land for them to be able to thrive and survive. The earliest of these peoples were known as the Sumerians. The Sumerians relied heavily on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for their agriculture and irrigation needs. They created a system that included cultivating and cropping. Along with proper irrigation and organized labor, they were able to take advantage of the fertile land. By doing this, they were able to produce a surplus of food that enabled them to stay in one place rather than migrating to different regions. They produced crops such as wheat and barley on a large scale. With the massive production of crops, not only did they have enough to feed themselves but they also had enough that enabled them to start on the domestication of animals. They raised different kinds of animals, but mainly sheep and cattle. They were able to use these animals not just a source of food, but for other survival needs as well, such as wool for clothing. Plenty of fishes were also caught from these rivers. With the surrounding waters, the land also provided clay which gave them the material to create pots and vases. The peoples of Mesopotamia depended heavily upon these rivers. Without them, their ways of survival would have been different. (Chadwick, 2005) B. The process of diffusion of potato was very important in the early days of human societies. Different varieties of potatoes were first discovered about 14,000 years ago by early South Americans. There were originally 235 different species of potatoes. It wasn’t’ until one specific type was found that the people realized how valuable potato can be. It was around 10,000 BCE that the S.tuberosum species of potato was discovered and domesticated by farmers from the Andes Mountains. The fertile soil and weather conditions of the Andes Mountains made it possible for the plants optimal growth. With the summer days and cold nights, they found out different ways to plant and grow potatoes. This led them to discover several varieties that ended up migrating to different societies. (Smith, 2011) By 1200 CE, the Inca Empire civilization was able to grasp the ways of the initial Andeans way of growing and planting potatoes.(Smith, 2011) Peoples of the Andean culture were absorbed into the Inca Empire. They were able to teach the ways that their ancestors have done in the past to grow and domesticate potatoes. After the potato arrived in the Inca Empire, it became their most important crop. With vast lands, they grew and cultivated potatoes extending from what is now known as the southern part of Columbia to the central part of Chile. (Smith, 2011) Due to the massive production of potatoes, they had to find ways on how to be able to store and keep them from spoiling. With enough searching, they were able to discover a technique of freezing and drying potatoes. These were called chuà ±os. Because of this process, they were able to save food from the times of famine. Workers from this society were required to build storage houses to store all the chuà ±os. In the year of 1532, the Spanish Conquistadores conquered the Inca Empire which led to further transmission and replication. (Smith, 2011) Today, the potato is a very important to our society’s diet as it was when the Andeans first discovered it. This would have not been possible if it wasn’t for the process of diffusion. C. Throughout the centuries, there have been many geographical and environmental factors that have affected the development and expansion of the United States. Two of these factors which greatly shaped this country to what it is today are the California Gold Rush and the Dust Bowl. The California Gold Rush began in January 24, 1848, when a man named James Marshall discovered gold alongside the American River which is located at present-day Sacramento. He then tells his boss, John Sutter, regarding his discovery. John Sutter tried to keep it as a secret, but people eventually found out and the word traveled. The word kept spreading until it reached the town of San Francisco. Reports were then published in a San Francisco based newspaper, The California Star. (California Historical Society, 2011) After some time passed, words have circulated to the eastern part of the United States. These series of events kicked off the migration of people to head west on a chance to becoming wealthy. It wasn’t only the people of the United States that was enticed with this discovery, but people from all over the world flocked to California. They came from different nations such as China, Australia, and Mexico, which is only a few of many. In 1849, there were ninety-thousand gold seekers that have taken different routes by land or water to reach California. The population of less than 25,000 just before 1849 grew to 223, 856 coming from a special census in 1852. (Udall Emmons, 2003) Due to this population growth, California was pronounced as the 31st state of the United States. Before 1931, the fields of the Great Plains in the United States have always been a welcoming place for farmers. It wasn’t until that summer that a drought came leaving the land very dry. The main crop wheat that grew here started dying due to the prolonged drought. With the growing winds, the once productive Great Plains has turned into a disaster that is waiting to happen. This became known as the Dust Bowl. (Soomo, 2013, The Dust Bowl) When the Dust Bowl started, about half a million Americans were forced to stay indoors and left with no choices because breathing has become difficult. Winds would reach up to a hundred miles per hour. (Soomo, 2013, The Dust Bowl) For the ones who went outside, especially children, they were required to wear face protection such as masks to cover their faces. This went on for years. The ones who were not able to cope up and live daily like this had to migrate and abandon what they had in the Great Plains. By 1940, about 2. 5 million people left to other parts of the United States. About 200,000 moved to California. (Worster, 1979, 2004) The Dust Bowl was considered as one of the largest migration in American history. How to cite Ancient Civilization Of Mesopotamia, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Pollen germination observations free essay sample

Toxicity on Pollen germination. Received: 15th February 2012 Abstract: Pollen obtained from the Hulls Rosa-Slovenes, commonly known as the Hibiscus flower were exposed to different concentrations of Lead to understand the effect of heavy metal on pollen tube germination. Heavy metals such as Lead, have shown to decrease the pollen germination and inhibit pollen tube growth. There was a correlation observed between the concentration of lead the pollen was exposed to ND the extent of growth Inhibition observed.The effect of 20 pimp, pimp, pimp and 80 pimp lead on pollen tube germination were studied using light microscopy. A progressive decrease in the percentage of pollen germination indicated that higher levels of toxicity caused higher growth inhibitions. Introduction: Heavy metals are natural components of the Earths crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air. As trace elements, some heavy metals are essential to maintain the metabolism of the human body. We will write a custom essay sample on Pollen germination observations or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning for human, animal, plant and microorganisms.Over the last decades, environmental contamination with heavy metals has increased drastically (Hussar Koran, Emmet Shall 2005) Heavy metals have recently received the attention of researchers all over the world, mainly due to their harmful effects on plant. The toxic effects of metals have also been intensively studied at the level of biochemical- physiological process such as photosynthesis, transpiration, enzyme activity or metal accumulation in tissue. Pollen germination and tube growth are used to detect biological activity of various environmental pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals, acid rain etc.In this experiment we report the effect of deferent concentrations of lead, and Its effect on pollen germination as seen In the pollen grains of the Hibiscus flower. Materials: Chemicals : -Penny powder obtained from Lobo chemicals. -Solutions of deferent concentrations of Lead (20,40,60 and 80 pimp). Dilutions prepared using distilled water. -O. IN HCI obtained from Mere, Chronicles, Iambi. Glass ware: Glass slides, Moisture chambers, Petri dishes, Pipettes, Droppers. All Obtained from Borzois) Filter paper, Scalpel/Blade, Microscope (Metzger Pat Ltd. ), Hibiscus flowers. Method : Pollen grains were obtained from the Hibiscus flower by placing the anthers on a glass slide and lightly dusting the pollen grains using a scalpel or a blade. The effect of each concentration was studied in triplicates, so as to minimize error. A negative control using dill. HCI and a positive control using sucrose solution were prepared for each set. Thus a total of 24 glass slides were prepared. Alongside, the filter paper Nas placed in a moisture chamber and wet with a few drops of water so as to keep he conditions moist and favorable for pollen germination.The lead solution was diluted to obtain individual solutions of concentrations pimp (ml BP + ml DID), pimp (ml BP + DID), pimp (ml BP + DID) and pimp (ml BP +D/W). 0. 1 ml of 20 pimp lead solution was mounted on to 3 slides with pollen grains. 3 such slides were prepared for each dilution of lead solution prepared. 3 controls were prepared for each set, using dill. HCI, distilled water and sucrose as negative and positive controls respectively. Each of these slides were placed in the moisture chamber and allowed o stand for 20 minutes.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Great Gatsby8 essays

The Great Gatsby8 essays In the novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Jay Gatsby is a mysterious man living in the West Egg district of Long Island. Gatsby is extremely wealthy and owns a mansion with a large swimming pool, a fancy car, and dozens of servants. Every Saturday night, he throws extravagant parties which many people, most of whom haven't even been invited, attend. No one really knows anything about Gatsby, except that he is rich and generous. However, many rumors are created about him. Some say that he was a German spy during the war and some say that he killed a man. As the summer progresses, Nick Carraway the narrator who is also Gatsby's neighbor, learns more about who Gatsby really is, or rather who he isn't and reasons why he lives his life as he does. Nick doesn't approve of Gatsby's lifestyle and the way he earns his money, but nevertheless he sees Gatsby as superior to those who surround him. Nick admires the romantic hope that motivates Gatsby to pursue his dreams. Jay Gatsby's greatness is a result of his naive belief that he can make his dreams a reality. In the beginning of the novel, Nick sums up Gatsby's character and the reasons why he respects him. "...Gatsby who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him...This responsiveness had nothing to do with that flabby impressionability which is dignified under the name if the 'creative temperament'it was an extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness such as I have never found in any other person and which is not likely I shall ever find again."(6) Nick makes it very clear that he doesn't agree with the way Gatsby makes and uses his money. Although Nick comes from a very wealthy family himself, he was taught to work hard for his money. Nevertheless, he does find himself admiring Gatsby. He values Gatsby's hope, no matter how false...

Monday, March 2, 2020

How Carbon-14 Is Used To Date Artifacts

How Carbon-14 Is Used To Date Artifacts In the 1950s W.F. Libby and others (University of Chicago) devised a method of estimating the age of organic material based on the decay rate of carbon-14. Carbon-14 dating can be used on objects ranging from a few hundred years old to 50,000 years old. What Is Carbon-14? Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere when neutrons from cosmic radiation react with nitrogen atoms: 147N 10n → 146C 11H Free carbon, including the carbon-14 produced in this reaction, can react to form carbon dioxide, a component of air. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, CO2, has a steady-state concentration of about one atom of carbon-14 per every 1012 atoms of carbon-12. Living plants and animals that eat plants (like people) take in carbon dioxide and have the same 14C/12C ratio as the atmosphere. However, when a plant or animal dies, it stops taking in carbon as food or air. The radioactive decay of the carbon that is already present starts to change the ratio of 14C/12C. By measuring how much the ratio is lowered, it is possible to make an estimate of how much time has passed since the plant or animal lived. The decay of carbon-14 is: 146C → 147N 0-1e (half-life is 5720 years) Example Problem A scrap of paper taken from the Dead Sea Scrolls was found to have a 14C/12C ratio of 0.795 times that found in plants living today. Estimate the age of the scroll. Solution The half-life of carbon-14 is known to be 5720 years.​ Radioactive decay is a first order rate process, which means the reaction proceeds according to the following equation: log10 X0/X kt / 2.30 where X0 is the quantity of radioactive material at time zero, X is the amount remaining after time t, and k is the first order rate constant, which is a characteristic of the isotope undergoing decay. Decay rates are usually expressed in terms of their half-life instead of the first order rate constant, where k 0.693 / t1/2 so for this problem: k 0.693 / 5720 years 1.21 x 10-4/year log X0 / X [(1.21 x 10-4/year] x t] / 2.30 X 0.795 X0, so log X0 / X log 1.000/0.795 log 1.26 0.100 therefore, 0.100 [(1.21 x 10-4/year) x t] / 2.30 t 1900 years